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An Explanatory Model of Heavy Quarks and Particles Generating resulted by a Cold

An Explanatory Model of Heavy Quarks and Particles Generating resulted by a Cold

Excluding Tax


The theoretical model explains the generating of heavy quarks and of heavy particles using the known quark s(strange) and two semi-light quarks:   (435MeV) and v (574 MeV) specific to a cold genesis theory of astroparticles’ forming, (CGT). The masses of the quarks c• (charm) and b • (bottom) of the Standard Model but also the values used by de Souza: c = 1.7 GeV and b = 5 GeV, are re-obtained as tri-quark clusters in the form: [(qq)q], by a simple de-excitation reaction, with the emission of a preonic boson obtained in CGT: z0 =34me , respective: z2 = 4z0 and z = 6z0- for the quarks b• and b, a similar de-excitation reaction, with the emission of a preonic boson zk = nz 0, (n = 17) representing less than 2.7% from the particle’s mass, explaining the experimentally obtained masses of heavy baryons and of some heavy mesons. The heavy current quarks results by lighter current quarks with quasi-crystalline internal structure, by an arrangement with trigonal/hexagonal symmetry of preonic kernels, by two preonic bosons: z2 = 4z0; z= 7z0, the top-quark resulting as: t = 17(bb) + b = (7x5)m(b), with a kernel of regular hexagonal polyhedron form, given by kernels of b-quarks.

Submitted 07/05/21 Revised 26/07/21 Accepted 27/07/21


In a relatively recent paper, [1], a research team of the Science Institute for Nuclear Research in Debrecen, Hungary, after some experiments for the detection of dark photons, announced that significant deviation from the internal pair creation during the (e+ -e - ) transition to the ground state of an excited Be8* nucleus was observed at large angles, which indicates that in an intermediate step, was formed a neutral super-light particle with a mass of 17 MeV/c2, (34 me), the excited Be8* state being obtained by proton interaction with a target of Li7, i.e. by a reaction: Li7 + p+→Be*→Be8 + b0; b0→ e + + e-, m(b0)  34 me (1) In another paper, [2], a team of American physicists from California concluded that the evidenced new boson could be the evidence for the predicted X-boson of a fifth fundamental force, coupling quarks with leptons. But a particle with the same mass: 34 me, was considered in 2006 by a cold genesis quark model as being the basic preon z0 which composes the effective quark mass, according to a cold genesis pre-quantum theory of particles and fields of the author, (CGT), based on the Galilean relativity, [3]. This z0 -preon was deduced by calibrating the value: MK = me/2 = 68.5me obtained by Olavi Hellman [4], using the masses of the proton and of the -baryon, [3]. The experimentally evidenced particle with 34me as a neutral boson which decays into an (e+-e - ) pair suggests that- in accordance with CGT, in the decay of Be8* to its ground state, the excess energy was emitted in the form of a neutral preon, formed as a cluster of an even number n = 42 of quasielectrons (by an integer number of degenerate “gammons”,  *(e*- e *+) ), with mass me * = 34/42 = 0.8095 me, given by a degeneration of the magnetic moment’s quantum vortex  at a value corresponding to the charge e * = ( 2/3)e and to a difference between the masses of neutron and proton given by an incorporate electron with a degenerate magnetic moment and a linking ‘gammon’ e ( *) = 2me *  1.62 me The considered “gammons” were experimentally observed in the form of quanta of “un-matter” plasma, [5]. The number: n = 42me* may be explained by considering a “quarcin” c0 *+ =7x3= 21 me* and considering that the expelled boson b0 is a basic preon: z0 = (c0 * +c0 *) = 34 me , (c0 *-anti-quarcin) which decays in the form: z 0(c0 * +c0 *) → c0 + + c0 + → e + + e - +  ; (c0 +( 2/3e) -‘quarcins’- identifiable as high energy electrons [6]), In CGT is possible also to deduce a quark model of cold formed particles with effective (constituent) mass of quarks, which gives the particle’s mass by the sum rule, considering as fundamental stable sub-constituent the basic preon z 0 = 42 me *  34 me, which can form derived “zerons”, (preonic neutral bosons: z1(3z 0); z2(4z0); z (6z0), etc.) and two preonic bosons: z2(4z0) =136me; z(7z0) =238 me, which form the light and semi-light quarks (mqc 2 < 1 GeV).

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